TO CHILDREN IS BIG BUSINESS
1992 to 1997, the amount of money spent on marketing to children
doubled, from $6.2
billion to $12.7 billion.[i]
Today they are spending at least $15 billion.
influence purchases totaling over $600 billion a year.[ii]
spend almost forty hours a week outside of school consuming media,
most of which is commercially driven.[iii]
average child sees about 40,000 commercials each on television alone.[iv]
marketing industry has found that babies are requesting brands as soon
as they speak.[vii]
2002, McDonald’s spent over $1.3 billion on advertising in the
are more vulnerable to marketing than adults. Very young children are
not able to distinguish between commercials and television programs.[ix]
the age about eight children can’t understand persuasive
intent–that the purpose of commercials is to entice them into buying
the product being advertised.[x]
2000, a federal report from the General Accounting Office called
marketing in schools a growth industry.[xi]
children recognize the Budweiser Frogs than Smokey the Bear.[xii]
85% of American parents would like to see children’s television programs commercial free.[xiii]
[i]. Lauro, PW (1999) Coaxing the smile that sells: Baby wranglers in demand in marketing for children. New York Times, November 1, C1+.
[ii]. Packaged Facts. “The Kids Market.” New York: MarketResearch.com, March 2000.
[iii]. Roberts, DF et al (1999) Kids & Media @ the New Millennium. Menlo Park, CA: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.
[iv]. Kunkel, D. (2001) Children and television advertising. In D.G. Singer & J.L. Singer (Eds.), The handbook of children and media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 375-394.
6. Rideout, V.; Vandewater, E.;and Wartella, E. Zero to Six: Electronic Media in the Lives of Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers (Melnlo Park: CA: The Henry F. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003) pg. 5.
[vii]. Paul Kurnit quoted in Duncan Hood, “Is Advertising to Kids Wrong? Marketers Respond,” KidScreen, November 2000, 16.
[viii]. “100 Leading National Advertisers,” Advertising Age, 74 (25) 23 June 2003, 2.
[ix]. Atkin, C. (1982) Television Advertising and Socialization Consumer Roles. In D. Pearl (Ed.), Television and Behavior: Ten Years of Scientific Progress and Implications for the Eighties. Rockland, MD: National Institute of Mental Health, 191-200.
[x]. Kunkel, D. (2001) Children and Television Advertising. In D.G. Singer & J.L. Singer (Eds.), The handbook of children and media. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 375-393.
[xi]. Shaul, MS. Public Education: Commercial Activities in Schools. Report to Congressional Requesters. Washington, D.C.: United States General Accounting Office, 2000.
[xii]. Lieber (1996) Commercial and character slogan recall by children aged 9 to 11years: Budweiser frogs versus Bugs Bunny. Berkeley, CA: Center on Alcohol Advertising.
[xiii]. Lake, Snell, Perry, and Associates. Television in the digital age: A report to the Project on Media Ownership and the Benton Foundation, December, 1998.